children’s attitude, English language, English learning


This study aims at exploring Libyan school children’s attitude towards English language as a foreign language. English is a relatively new language to many schoolchildren in Libya, as it was banned before, one of the best ways to understand the poor performance in English is by understanding their attitude towards the language itself.  This is because attitude is a major affective factor in determining whether learners are capable of learning a language. This study therefore aims to investigate the attitude of Libyan school children regarding learning English so that measures can be taken to rectify any problems associated with negative attitudes and to prevent them from persisting. This study employed a quantitative approach using questionnaire survey distributed to 236 student of Libyan schools in Malaysia. The population of study is 550 respondents divided into 5 Libyan schools. The findings of study reveals that there is an efforts of Libyan school children regarding learning English. This study recommend to expand the social cognitive learning theory (SCLT) theory in their examination of the additional factors that have the potential of influencing adoption intention to learning English.


Abbas, F., & Iqbal, Z. (2018). Language Attitude of the Pakistani Youth towards English, Urdu and Punjabi: A Comparative Study. Pakistan Journal of Distance and Online Learning, 4 (1), 199-214.

Alhmali, J. (2007). Student attitudes in the context of the curriculum in Libyan education in middle and high schools. PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow.

Al-Beckay, E., & Reddy, S. V. (2015). Developing English Reading Skills among the Young Arab (Libyan) Learners. International Jurnal of Education and Training.[Online], 1(1), 1-8.

Aloreibi, A., & Carey, M. D. (2016). English Language Teaching in Libya After Gaddafi. English Language Education Policy in the Middle East and North Africa, 93–114. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46778-8_7

Al-Nofaie, H. (2010). Attitudes of Teachers and Students towards Using Arabic in EFL Classrooms in Saudi Public Schools- A Case Study. Research on Youth and Language, 4(1), 64-95. [Online] Available: (August 9, 2011)

Al-Tamimi, A. & Shuib, M. (2009). Motivation and attitudes towards learning English: A study of petroleum engineering undergraduates at Hadhramout University of Sciences and Technology. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 9(2), 29-55. [Online] Available: (August 9, 2011)

Al-Zahrani, M. (2008). Saudi secondary school male students’ attitudes towards English: An exploratory study. J. King Saudi University, Language and translation, 20, 25-39.

Almanafi, A. O. S., & Alghatani, R. H. (2020). An Exploration of Libyan Learners’ Attitudes Towards Pair Work Activity in English Language Learning Development. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 11(2), 37-47.

Alshalan, K. (2019). Theories of Language Learning. American Journal of Humanities and Social Research (AJHSSR), 3(8), 69-72.

Asghar, A., Jamil, I., Iqbal, A., & Yasmin, M. (2018). Learner attitude towards EFL learning: A response from art and design. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 6(05), 81

Ahmed, A. A. (2018). Washback: Examining English Language Teaching and Learning in Libyan Secondary School Education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Huddersfield).

Aziz, Z. A., Nasir, C., & Ramazani, R. (2019). Applying metacognitive strategies in comprehending English reading texts. Celt: A Journal of Culture, English Language Teaching & Literature, 19(1), 138-159.

Baresh, E. F., Ali, S. M., & Darmi, R. (2019). Using Hybrid Problem-Based Learning (HPBL) Approach to Enhance Libyan EFL Students' Engagement with English Language. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 7(2), 9-20.

Bagigni, A. (2016). The role of English in Libya and its implications for syllabus design in Libyan higher education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Huddersfield).

Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and Language. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Bandalos, D. L., & Finney, S. J. (2018). Factor analysis: Exploratory and confirmatory. In The reviewer’s guide to quantitative methods in the social sciences (pp. 110-134). Routledge

Benson & D. Nunan (eds.), Learners’ Stories: Difference and Diversity in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 22-41.

Boonrangsri, K., Chuaymankhong, D., Rermyindee, N. & Vongchittpinyo, N. (2004). The Attitude towards English Language Learning of the Students in Vocational Certificate Level under Curriculum in 2002. A Case Study of Ayutthaya Technical College studied by Naresuan University, Thailand.

Choy, S. C. & Troudi, S. (2006). An investigation into the changes in perceptions of and attitudes towards learning English in a Malaysian college. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 18(2), 120-130. [Online] Available: (August 9, 2011)

De Bot, K., Lowie, W. & Verspoor, M. (2005). Second language acquisition: An advanced resource book. London: Routledge.

Dikko, M. (2016). Establishing Construct Validity and Reliability: Pilot Testing of a Qualitative Interview for Research in Takaful (Islamic Insurance). Qualitative Report, 21(3)

Evenson, K. R., Goto, M. M., & Furberg, R. D. (2015). Systematic review of the validity and reliability of consumer-wearable activity trackers. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 159

Etikan, I., Alkassim, R., & Abubakar, S. (2016). Comparision of snowball sampling and sequential sampling technique. Biometrics and Biostatistics International Journal, 3(1), 55.

Fakeye, D. (2010). Students’ Personal Variables as Correlates of Academic Achievement in English as a Second Language in Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 22(3), 205-211.

Feng. R. & Chen, H. (2009). An Analysis on the Importance of Motivation and Strategy in Postgraduates English Acquisition. English Language Teaching.2, 93-97. [Online] Available: (August 10, 2011)

Gardner, R. & Lambert, W. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Gardner, R. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning. The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.

Ghazali, S., Setia, R., Muthusamy, C. & Jusoff, K. (2009). ESL Students’ Attitude towards Texts and Teaching

Härdle, W. K., & Simar, L. (2015). Canonical correlation analysis. In Applied multivariate statistical analysis (pp. 443-454). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Haque, S. M. (1989). Attitude, motivation and achievement in English language learning: a case study of high school students in Dhaka City, Bangladesh (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University).

Ibnian, S. S. (2015). The Relationship between Saudi EFL Students’ Attitudes towards Learning English and their Academic Achievement

Loeb, S., Dynarski, S., McFarland, D., Morris, P., Reardon, S., & Reber, S. (2017). Descriptive Analysis in Education: A Guide for Researchers. NCEE 2017-4023. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Methods Used in Literature Classes. English language teaching, 2(4), 51-56. [Online] Available: (August 10, 2011)

Kara, A. (2009). The Effect of a ‘Learning Theories’ Unit on Students’ Attitudes towards Learning. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 34(3), 100-113. [Online] Available: (August 10, 2011)

Kerman Azad University. International Conference “ICT for Language Learning. 3rd edition. [Online] Available: Fatehi_Rad.pdf (August 9, 2011)

Khalid, K. A. A. (2017). Learning and Teaching in English: A Case Study of Higher Education in Libya (Doctoral dissertation, Liverpool John Moores University.

Kovács, G. (2017). Culture in Language Teaching: A course design for teacher trainees. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica, 9(3), 73-86

Mohsen, A. H. S. (2014). Teaching English as a foreign language in Libya. Scientific Research Journal (SCIRJ), 2(11), 58-64

Momani, M. (2009). The Jordanian Secondary Stage students Achievement in Reading Comprehension according to their views towards Learning English as a Foreign Language. Journal of Human Sciences, 42, 1-36. [Online] Available: (August 11, 2011)

Montano, D. E. & Kasprzyk, D. (2008). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model. In K. Glanz, B. Rimer & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 67-96.

Orafi, S. & Borg, S. (2009). Intentions and realities in implementing communicative curriculum reform. System, 37, 243-253.

Padwick, A. (2010). Attitudes towards English and Varieties of English in Globalizing India. University of Groningen. Newcastle, England. [Online] Available: 802445-A.Padwick.pdf (August 9, 2011)

Palmer, B. C., El-Ashry, F., Leclere, J. T., & Chang, S. (2007). Learning from Abdallah: A case study of an Arabic-speaking child in a US school. The Reading Teacher, 61(1), 8-17.

Pathan, M. M., & Marayi, Z. E. (2016). Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Libyan Schools: Issues and Challenges. International Journal of English and Education, 5 (2). pp. 19, 39.

Petcharat, N., & Phoocharoensil, S. (2017). A Corpus-Based Study of English Synonyms: Appropriate, Proper, and Suitable. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 10(2), 10-24.

Rad, N. (2009). Evaluation of English Students’ Beliefs about Learning English as Foreign Language: A Case of

Rukh, S. A. M. A. R. (2014). Students’ attitude towards English language learning and academic achievement: A case of business students in Punjab. European Academic Research, 2(4), 5596-5612.

Reid, N. (2003). Getting started in pedagogical research in the physical sciences. LTSN Physical Sciences Centre, University of Hull, Hull. [Online] Available: _physical_sciences_aug_2004.pdf (August 9, 2011)

Saidat, A, M. (2010). Language Attitude: The Case of Jordan. International Journal of Academic Research, 2, 235–243. [Online] Available: (August 11, 2011)

Shams, M. (2008). Students’ attitudes, motivation and anxiety towards English language learning. Journal ofResearch, 2(2), 121-144.

Shoaib, A. & Dornyei, Z. (2005). Affect in lifelong learning: exploring L2 motivation as a dynamic Process. In P.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons. P575.

Sase, A. S., Abdelaal, N. M., & Amhimmid, N. S. (2015). Investigating motivation among Libyan high school students. International Journal of English Linguistics, 5(6), 59.

Sampson, Robert J., Jared Schachner, and Robert D. Mare.) 2017 (. “Urban Income Inequality and the Great Recession in Sunbelt Form: Disentangling Individual and Neighborhood-Level Change in Los Angeles.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 3: 102-128.

Youssef, A. M. S. (2012). Role of motivation and attitude in introduction and learning of English as a foreign language in Libyan high schools. International Journal of Linguistics, 4(2), 366–375

Youssef, A. M. S., & Bose, H. (2015). Challenges in the Learning of English as a Foreign Language in Libyan High School. International Journal of English and Literature (IJEL) Vol, 5, 17, 22

Tavil, Z. (2009). Parental Attitudes towards English Education for Kindergarten Students in Turkey. Kastamonu Education Journal. 17(1), 331-340. [Online] Available: (August 9, 2011)

Tribble, C. (2015). Teaching and language corpora. Multiple affordances of language corpora for data-driven learning, 69, 37-39.

Tella, J., Indoshi, F. C. & Othuon, L. A. (2010). Relationship between students’ perspectives on the secondary school English curriculum and their academic achievement in Kenya. Educational Research, 1(9), 390-395. [Online] Available: (August 11, 2011)

Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273-1296

Victori, M. & Lockhart, W. (1995). Enhancing metacognition in self-directed language learning. System, 23, 223-234.

Visser, M. (2008). Learning under conditions of hierarchy and discipline: The case of the German Army (1939-1940). Learning Inquiry. 2, 127-137.

Velasufah, W., & Setiawan, A. R. (2019). Science motivation questionnaire ii (smq-ii): analysis on validity and reliability of bahasa indonesia version through various learning context

Wenden, A. (1991). Learner Strategies for Learner Autonomy. London: Prentice Hall.

Zulfikar, T., Dahliana, S., & Sari, R. A. (2019). An Exploration of English Students’ Attitude toward Learning English. English Language Teaching Educational Journal, 2(1), 1-12



How to Cite

FARAJ, A. Z. E. (2022). ATTITUDE TOWARDS ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AMONG LIBYAN SCHOOLCHILDREN IN MALAYSIA. International Journal of Advance Research in Education &Amp; Literature, 8(5), 85–96.